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METHODOLOGY

Data and nomenclature have been produced in cooperation with the University of California, Information Center for the Environment, Dept. of Environmental Science

Birds

 

Countries and States-equivalents

Further on in this website you will find an individual page for every country in the world larger than 20,000 km2 .  For Russia, India, Indonesia, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, USA and Canada, we list checklists for most states/provinces/departments usually leaving out very small states. On each page you will find one or several individual tables with each species whose geographical range overlaps with the territory of that country or that has been specifically recorded for that country.  The tables have been generated from huge databases that link all birds and mammals of the world with all the countries of their geographical distribution.  

 

Sibley II for the birds

When we started in 1999, we found that the Sibley and Monroe's A World Checklist of Birds was most consistent with the majority of field guides we analyzed. However, since their publication in 1993, lots of taxonomic development has taken place, and Sibley composed a new list that was more than 300 species longer, mostly by upgrading subspecies to the species level. In order to stay up to the latest developments, we now collaborate with the Information Center for the Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Policy of the University of California where Dr. Bob Meese heads the biodiversity group. Our institutions frequently exchange data and consult each other on nomenclature and recognition of species.  Currently our joint worldlist list has 10017 species, which we elaborated and explained from:

The updated World Checklist of birds

 

For nomenclature of all the birds of the world, we started out with the scientific names and English names.  But we did not stop there. Our next step was to look up the official names in other languages in so far as we could find them.  We now have lists for French (99%), German (89%), Spanish (65%), Portuguese (35%). You will find theses lists when you click the links to "worldlists" on the navigation table. 

 

Literature

Some of the literature consulted for both nomenclatural reference and distribution assessment (this list will be completed later on with books currently in use overseas by our database manager and with the many websites that we consulted):

  • A World Checklist of Birds, Monroe and Sibley, 1993

  • Fielding's Birding Indonesia, Paul Jepson, 1997

  • Birds of Southeast Asia, Craig Robson, 2000

  • The Princeton Field Guide to the Birds of Australia, 5th edition, Simpson, Ken, Day, Nicolas, Trusler, Peter, 1996

  • Birds of Europe, with North Africa and the Middle East, Lars Johnsson, 1992

  • Birds of the Middle East and North Africa, Hollom, P.A.D., Porter, R.F., Christensen, S., Willis, Ian, 1988

  • Birds of Britain and Europe, Roger Tory Peterson, Guy Mountfort, P.A.D. Hollom, 1993

  • Birds of West Africa, W. Serle, G.J. Morel, W. Hartwig, 1977

  • Birds of the Himalayas, Bikram Grewal, Otto Pfister, 1998

  • Birds of Venezuela, Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee, William H. Phelps, Jr., 1978

  • Birds of Galapagos, Michael Harris, 1974

  • Birds of Southern South America and Antarctica, Illustrated Checklist, Peña, Martín R. de la, Rumboll, Maurice, 1998

  • The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand, Heather, Barrie, Robertson, Hugh, 1997

  • A guide to the Birds of Colombia, Hiltry, Steven L., Brown, William L., Tudor, Guy, 1986

  • Mexican Birds, Roger Tory Peterson, Edward L. Chalif, 1973

  • Vogelgids voor alle in ons land en overig Europa voorkomende soorten, Kist, 1964

  • Birds of Malawi, Nenneth Newman, Nigel Johnston-Steward, Bob Medland, 1992

  • Birds of Russia and Adjacent territories

  • A Guide to the Birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Shri Lanka, and the Maldives, Richard Grimmet, Carol Inskipp, Tim Inskipp, 1999

  • Sea Birds of the World, Jim Enticott & David Pipling, 1997

  • The Birds of Mexico, and Adjacent Areas, Belize, Guatemala, and El Salvador, Ernest Preston Edwards, 1998

  • A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica, F. Gary Stiles and Alexander F. Skutch, Cornell University Press, 1989

  • Grzimeks Tierleben, Vögel, Volumes 1 - , Grzimek, Bernard, et Al., 1973

  • Aves de Chile/Birds of Chile, Chester, Sharon R. 1995

  • National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds, Eastern Region, 7th edition, Bull, John, Farrand Jr., John, 1998

  • Birds, An Illustrated Survey of the Bird Families of the World, Gooders, John, 1975

  • A Photographic Guide to the Birds of the Himalayas, Grewal, Bikram, Pfister, Otto, 1998

  • Seabirds of the World, The Complete Reference, Enticott, Jim, Tipling, David, 1997

  • Aves del Ecuador/Birds of Ecuador, Locational Checklist, Ortiz, Fernando, Greenfield, Paul, Matheus, Juan Carlo, 1990

  • Todas as Aves do Brasil, Guia de Campo para Identificación, Souza, Deodato, 1998

  • Birds of Africa, from Seabirds to Seed-Eaters, Stuart, Chris & Tilde, 1999

  • All the Birds of North America, Griggs, Jack S., 1997

In addition we have consulted many official checklists for countries and states, where available. Where possible, we have combined different sets of information to determine the presence status and abundance. 

 

Presence status and abundance

The presence status and abundance we have deducted from distribution maps and the distribution listings in the consulted literature and from official checklists. For some countries, the lists reflect potential distribution and not actual records as they were interpreted from distribution maps. In  such case we have categorized them with a D.  In a number of cases, the revision has been very specific, such as for countries with a national bird guide or for guides with apparent checklist precision. In such cases the species are listed with a P, for present. Some sources were precise enough to register the status of presence.  For more and more countries we are finding the official national checklist on the internet or some users have sent up-to-date species lists. When we have come across a species list of a birdwatcher of birdwatchers organization, the D's have been replace by a P, or depending on the detail of the information by a more detailed presence status. 

 

We have tried to harmonize the presence status and abundance as shown in the following table. Those are our interpretations of characterizations from the data reviewed by us. often, differences between "Migrant" and "Wintering"; Nesting and Resident; Abundant and Occasional, etc. vary per author. We have particularly struggled with the distinction between Common and Occasional. We decided to set the distinction at about a hundred species, based on several observations. First of all, many composers of checklists for countries and states, often intuitively have made a distinction for Occasional consisting of more than a handful, and certainly many less than a thousand recorded observations. Only in a few cases, did authors or commissions actually list the number of observations for Occasional. A similar observation is true for Vagrants, where we arbitrarily put set the limit under 10 observations. 

 

The important thing is how to interpret such classification. Debatably, the Netherlands could be the most densely birded country in the world, given its number of birdwatchers per square kilometer, the small size of the country and the very active rare bird alert services. The chances that an unusual bird is observed in the Netherlands, is infinitely higher than in let's say the Republic of Chad. The probability that you may encounter a species classified as vagrant in the Netherlands is extremely low. On the other hand, a species classified as vagrant in a country in Africa because it has less than 10 observations, may actually be fairly common. 

 

With regard to the classifications of Nesting and Resident, some observations are in place as well. Many species that spend their entire live in a country or state, can be classified as Resident. But in reality, most bird species spend the non-breeding season at a different location than their nesting season.  In areas of overlap we don't notice this, because an area may still have the species around in both seasons, but they may be different individuals. From the different methods of categorization by different authors and committees, we interpreted the distinction between Resident and Nesting to our best ability.  When it is market as Resident, you know that you may expect the species to be around in the country or state during the entire year and that it is nesting. When it is marked as Nesting, you know that it is nesting, but it may also be around during the non-breeding season, albeit in lower numbers.  

 

By trying to standardize this information, no doubt errors have crept in. While dealing with so much info, we felt we needed to give you some handle on what to expect. Would it be likely that you could have seen a bird in a certain season? Or, when you go to country X, would you have a reasonable chance at seeing bird Y? We are continuously working at upgrading the information, one country at the time.  

 

Our work has been done out of passion for conservation. Nobody pays us to do this. We want to help. If you appreciate our work, and if it has been of any use to you, PLEASE visit our site Adopt A Ranger and see how you can most effectively contribute to the conservation of nature in the world. By paying one day of the salary of a ranger, you will make a difference in conserving the lives of thousands of birds, plants and other animals.  

Abundance, Abundancia, Häufichkeit
D

Distribution range deducted from map, not actual record.

Région de distribution; pas basé sur des régistres publiés mais sur des cartes de distribution.

Gebiet der Verbreitungskarte entnommen, nicht nach tatsächlichem Vorkommen

Área de distribución; no basada en registros públicados sino en mapas de distribución.

P

Present, abundance not determined.

Présent, abondance pas déterminée.

Kommt vor, Häufigkeit jedoch nicht festgehalten.

Presente, abundancia no determinada.

C Within its range, varying from common to incidental. Dedans sa région de distribution, variant de commune a incidentale. Innerhalb des Verbreitungsgebietes, häufig bis gelegentlich. Dentro su región de distribución, entre común y incidental.
O

Occasional: wandered outside of its normal range but still occurring from time to time. Normally between 10 - 100 records.

Incidentaire: divagué en dehors de sa région normale, mais présente de temps a autre. Normalement entre 10 et 100 observations.

Gelegentlich, ausserhalb des Stamm-gebietes, in der Regel zwischen 10 und 100 Beobachtungen.

Incidental, salió de su área de distribución pero su observación siempre puede ser esperada. Normalemente entre 10 y 100 observaciones.

V

Vagrant: accidental, species far out of its normal distribution range.

Accidentèle, se trouve loin de sa région de la distribution normale. 

Selten, da weit ausserhalb des normalen Gebiets.

Accidental, una especie lejos de su área de distribución.

I

Introduced species.

Espèce introduite.

Eingefürte Art.

Especie introducida.

Q

Not verified.

L' observation n'est pas vérifiée.

Vorkommen nicht bestätigt.

Registro / observación no es verificado.

X

Extinct.

 Extincte. 

Ausgestorben.

Extinta.

XL

Locally extinct.

Extincte localmente.

Örtlich ausgestorben.

Extinta localemente.

R

Resident: present  year around.

Résidente: présente pendant toute l'année.

Jaresvogel.

Residente: presente durante todo el año.

State of Permanence, Etat de séjour, Vorkommen, Estadía
N

Nests in the state but absent during non-breeding season.

Se niche dans la région, mais sortit pendant la saison  non-réproductive.

Brutvogel: verlässt das Gebiet nach der Brutzeit.

Solamente permanece en el área durante la estación de anidamiento.

M

Migrant: Spends only a brief period en route to its winter grounds

Migrateur:  se ne dépense qu' un moment brève en route aux regions de l'hiver.

Zugvogel: verweilt nur eine kurze Periode unterwegs nach irher Wintergründe.

Migratoria: solamenter permanece durante un período breve en camino a sus áreas de invernación.

W

Wintering; stays in the area, while its primary nesting range is elsewhere.

S'hiverne dans le pays, mais se niche fondamentalement ailleurs. 

Überwintert im Gebiet; normales Brutgebiet anderweitig.

Inviernan en el país mientras su región de anidamiento se encuentra en otra parte.

E

National endemic.

Endémique national.

National endemische Art.

Especie endémica nacional.

*

* Behind letter = national bird or symbol.

* Derrière de la lettre = Oiseau ou symbole national.

* hinter dem Buchstaben = Nationalvogel oder -symbol.

* Atrás de la letra = Pájaro o símbolo nacional.

 

 

Mammals

We have started the entry of the distribution of the mammals of the world.  As a group, Mammals are not as well studied and observed as the birds.  The observation of the many smaller species is more difficult and many are nocturnal.  So our listings are less detailed than those of the birds.  We cannot provide lists per state-equivalent, nor can we give the detail of distribution status that we are developing for the birds. 

 

With regard to common names, not all species have an English name.  A French collaborator who prefers to stay anonymous, has probably listed the most complete list of French names from a large score of different literature sources and we are proud to publish this list on his behalf.  The Spanish names are still an absolute chaos, usually with each name covering a score of species.  It will be a long while before a decent list can be published for even the Hispanic regions.  We have not found anything in Portuguese.  Grzmeck's Animal Encyclopedia (1973) lists a large score of mammal names and we are currently working at entering those data in our database.  It is a good start, but it will be a while before you will find it on our web net.

 

Literature

Some of the literature consulted for both nomenclatural reference and distribution assessment (this list will be completed later on with books currently in use overseas by our database manager and with the many websites that we consulted):

 

  • Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 1

  • Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 2, Redford, Kent H., Eisenberg, John F. with plates of Reid, Fiona, 1992

  • Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 3

  • A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico, Reid, Fiona A., 1997

  • Mamíferos de Honduras, Marineros, Leonel, Martínez G., Fransisco, 1998 

  • Mammals of Europe, Macdonald, David W., 1993

  • Walker's Mammals of the World, Volumes I and II, Sixth edition, Nowak, Ronald M. 1999

  • Grzimeks Tierleben, Säugetiere Volumes 1 - 4, Grzimek, Bernard, et Al., 1973

  • Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises, Carwardine, illustrated by Camm, Martin, 1995

  • Seals and Sirenians, Reeves, Randall R. Stewart, Brent S., Leatherwood, Stephen, Illustrations by Folkens, Pieter A., 1992

  • The Kingdom Field Guide to African Mammals, 2nd edition, Kingdom, Jonathan, 2001

  • Primates of the World, Preston-Mafham, Rod & Ken, 1999

  • Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Africa, Stuart, Chris & Tilde, 1998

  • Field Guide to the Mammals of the Indian Subcontinent, Gurung, K.K., Singh, Raj, 1996

  • Mammals of South-East Asia, A Photographic Guide to, Francis, Charles M., 2001

 

 

National parks, nature reserves and protected areas

The lists of national parks, nature reserves and protected areas appear as they are registered with the United Nations Environment Programme/World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge. Are lists are currently a bit outdates, and we are working at updating the lists.  In some cases, we have more recent and accurate information, such as is the case for Honduras.


We need your help

Obviously our method has been inadequate, and we invite national ornithologists or nature organizations to review the lists of their respective country and send us an alternative list consisting of real records.  In such case we will adopt the database and refer to the sender of that list as the actual provider of the information.  In the case that such list is a first time publication, we will duly honour that person as the actual author of that bird list.  We are receiving continuous emails with most valuable information to improve our database and our website.  

 

Moreover, we would like to list up to some 5 ornithological hotspots per country.  We consider a location a hotspot, if more than one-third of the species native to that country have been sited there.  If we get too many hotspots for a certain country, we will discuss with the local ornithologists, which spots we should list.

 

If you would like to volunteer maintaining your nation's web page, please contact us.

 

The Web Site  BIRDLIST.ORG and its enormous database has been built by junior professionals in both developing countries and the USA, guided and supervised by senior experts of WICE, so that they can accumulate experience in birding, zoogeography and computer skills. The team includes:

 

Deirdre Vreugdenhil

Justin Pistore

Sara Sadhegi

David Medina

Astrid Vreugdenhil

Carmen Linarte

Wendy Duran

Daan Vreugdenhil (senior scientist)

 

Our website is meant to be of scientific quality, and we think that the quality of information in improving constantly.  But our approach is different from what scientific institutions do.  We present our information in a way that it is easily accessible to a broad public.  We have applied search methods for search engines which are quite effective and as a result we get extremely high visitation rates. ;As we particularly target regular friends of nature and the international travel market, Nature World Wide enjoys far more web-traffic than regular scientific websites. As a result we reach a completely different public than the typical full-time conservation professionals. We reach you, member of the interested public.

 

Yet, we try to bring our information to international scientific quality.  All work is performed by young biologists who work under the guidance of senior biologists of WICE. (Please read our disclaimer at the bottom of the page).  Therefore our website is also very valuable for professional conservation biologists. World Wide Nature is currently elaborating a comprehensive methodology toolbox for protected areas systems, which you may expect to find by the end of 2002. 

 

WICE will continue to upgrade and expand the information in this website with its in-house information as well as with information from you, the user. Any country web page can be adopted by a national society for the conservation of nature or birding, or by an individual birdwatcher, who can correct and maintain the contents of checklist of the birds of the country and add national ornithological hot spots. Such organisation or individual will be encouraged to provide a brief organisation profile or curriculum and an email address to be posted on the national web page to facilitate correspondence with birdwatchers interested in that country.

 

Please contact us at  if you want to adopt the web page of your country.  Or simply if you want to tell us what you think about this web site. You may correspond in Français, Deutsch, English, Español, Português, Nederlands. Enjoy your visit at our site!

 

Request for YOUR HELP on acquiring foreign language names

We have all Portuguese names of the birds for Europe, Brasil and Southern Africa.  Temos os nomeis de tudas as aves para Europa, Brasil e Africa do Sul. 

Agora procuramos os nomeis para Africa do Norte e Central e Asia. Posivelmente existem nomeis para Timor e Macão.

 

If there is a complete or national list in your language that you would like us to host, please send it to us and we will post it on the web.

 

If you can help us with any foreign names, please contact us at the e-mail address at the bottom of the page.

What if you want to save the checklist of a country? It may be disappointing to you, Birdlist.org does not give out or sell its database, because we want you to actually visit our website.  So, if you like the list of a country or a certain language list, the easiest way is to print it from your computer.  Printing instructions are included on each national page. 

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September

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April
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March
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US Government kills Yellowstone National Park bisons or buffaloes
February
"Slaughtering of Seals in Namibia": Take a look at a long ignored nature management issue

Fatbirder's Top 500 Birding Websites

 

NATURE WORLDWIDE is the official website of the World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE. It is an integrated network of web sites dealing with different topics on nature, nature conservation and natural resources management. Read here why we created Nature Worldwide. Our Methodology explains how we produced our information. Our Site Map helps you find your way in the website. We made this website out of passion for conservation. We spent our own salaries and free time to gather the information and publish it on these websites, in total valuing hundreds of thousands of dollars of professional time. Nobody pays us to do this. We simply want to contribute to conservation. If you appreciate our work, PLEASE visit our site Adopt A Ranger and see how you can make a difference for conservation most effectively: By paying one day of the salary of a ranger, you will make a difference in conserving the lives of thousands of birds, other critters and entire forests. Enjoy!

NATURE DU MONDE est le site Web officiel du World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE, C'est une collection intégrée de sites web qui traitent avec des sujets différents sur nature, conservation de la nature et gestion des ressources naturelles. Lisez ici pourquoi nous avons créé Nature de Monde. Notre Methodologie explique comme nous avons produit nos renseignements. Notre Site Map vous aide trouver votre entrée dans le site web. Beaucoup de plaisir!

NATURALEZA DEL MUNDO es la página Web oficial del World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE, Es una red de páginas Web tratando de temas diferentes relacionados a la naturaleza, la conservación el manejo de recursos naturales, parques nacionales y áreas protegidas. Lea aqui porqué hicimos Naturaleza del Mundo. Nuestra Methodología explica como produjimos la información. Nuestro Mapa del sitio le ayuda encontrar su información en nuestra página web. Disfrute! 

NATUREZA DO MUNDO é o Web site oficial do World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE, Es uma red de páginas Web tratando de temas diferentes relacionados à natureza, la conservação el manejo de recursos naturaleiss, parques nacionais y áreas protegidas. Lea aqui porqué creamos Natureza do Mundo. Nossa Methodología explica como produjimos a informação. Nosso Mapa do sitio le ayuda encontrar sua informação no web site. Desfrute!

NATUR DER GANZEN WELT ist, die offiziellen Website der World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE. Es ist ein einheitliches Netzwerk von Web Sites, über Themen wie Natur, Natur-Schutz und natürlichem Ressourcen Quellen Hege. Lesen Sie hier warum wir Natur der ganzen Welt gemacht haben. Unsere Verfahrensweise erklärt, wie wir unsere Informationen produziert würde. Unsere Site Map  hilft Ihnen Ihren Weg im Website zu finden. Viel Spaß!

NATUUR UIT ALLE STREKEN is, de officiële Website van het World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE. Het is een geïntegreerd Netwerk van websites, over Natuur, Natuurbescherming en het beheer van natuurlijke hulpbronnen. Lesen Sie hier warum wir Natuur uit alle Streken gemacht haben. Onze pagina Methode legt uit, hoe we onze informatie vergaarden. Onze Site Map helpt u op weg door onze website. 

WICE is a worldwide non-government non-profit organization that contributes to the conservation of nature. While it works on a many issues related to the conservation of nature and the protection of the environment, it is particularly committed to the conservation of national parks and other protected areas.

WICE - USA office:                            

1639 Steamboat Run Road

Shepherdstown, WV25443, USA

 

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